The results of the bivariate analysis between the dependent
The results of the bivariate analysis between the dependent variables (anxiety and depression) and the independent variables are shown in Table 2. We observed significant differences in anxiety and depression between social classes, with women in the lower social class having more anxiety and depression. By employment status, the worst situation is for the disabled women with significant differences too. Suffering relapses, living in social isolation and having low social support are also significantly associated with risk of depression and anxiety. Living alone is significantly associated with anxiety, but not depression; women who live alone suffer less anxiety. Age is also important, with younger women showing more anxiety than older ones. We found no significant association between tumour stage at diagnosis and time since diagnosis.
We observed significant differences in anxiety, especially probable anxiety, as a function of age, social class and relapse (Table 3). Older women (>65 years) had lower risk of probable anxiety than the younger ones [OR = 0.42 (0.23-0.75), p 0.004]. Women from the lower and medium social RGX-104 had higher risk than those in the highest class [OR = 1.76 (1.21–2.55), p 0.003; and OR = 1.43 (1.01–2.02), p 0.042, respectively]. Women who had a relapse were at greater risk of having symptoms [OR = 1.63 (1.02–2.62), p 0.043]. In terms of social support, the women with low social support present more risk for both doubtful and probably anxiety [OR = 2.18 (1.59–2.99), p 0.000] and [OR = 4.79 (3.31–6.95), p 0.000], respectively. Women who lived alone had a lower risk of doubtful anxiety and probable anxiety than those who lived with somebody else [OR = 0.66 (0.51-0.86), p 0.002; and OR = 0.68 (0.46-0.97), p 0.03, respectively]. In terms of employment status, women with disability had the highest risk of both doubtful and probable anxiety. We found no significant differences in either doubtful or probable anxiety according to tumour stage at diagnosis, time since diagnosis and social network.
Table 4 shows the results for depression in relation to the different variables. Employment status was found to be particularly important: women who were not working had a higher risk of depression than those who were, and women with disability had the highest risk [OR = 4.67 (2.27–9.59), p 0.000] for probable depression; and [OR = 2.58 (1.49–4.5), p 0.001] for probable depression [OR = 4.67 (2.27–9.59), p 0.000]. We observed that women with low social support have a higher risk of both doubtful depression [OR = 5.08 (3.18–8.11)] and of probable depression [OR = 2.35 (1.49–3.69)] than those with medium or high social support. We also observed social class inequalities in probable depression with women from lower social classes (IV + V) being more than twice as likely to have depression than those in high social classes (I + II) [OR = 2.22 (1.29–3.82), p 0.004]. In terms of cohabitation, women living alone were less likely to have doubtful depression than those who lived with other people. Women in social isolation had higher risk of probable depression than those who had different levels of social connection [OR = 2.35 (1.49–3.69), p 0.000]. We found no significant differences in either doubtful anxiety or probable anxiety according to age, tumour stage at diagnosis, time since diagnosis, and relapse.
Discussion We found that 5.8% of the women in our study had probable depression, which is similar to that described for women in the general population (5.6% prevalence/year). In contrast, the prevalence of probable anxiety among women in the Dama Cohort was 14%, while the corresponding prevalence/year among women in the general population was 1.18% . If we also include women who have been classified as having possible depression, we can see that the detected prevalence of both pathologies is remarkably high. In addition, our results showed that depression and anxiety are more common among women of low social status, those who were not working, irrespective of the reason, those who had suffered relapse or metastasis, those with a weak social network, and those in a situation of social isolation and low social support.